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Op-ed: What Can we See in web4 that we’re Missing in Web3?

Web4 is seen as the next evolution of the World Wide Web, building upon the decentralized technologies of Web3.

The more I speak and advise on crypto and blockchain matters, the more I think there is a gap between what decentralization is and reality. I do not doubt the feasibility of decentralization; I am just not sure if the current version of Web3 is decentralized enough. Maybe we are what everyone is saying, “we are merely in Web 2.5.”

Let’s begin.


WWW is an abbreviation for World Wide Web. It is a network of papers and other resources linked together via hyperlinks and URLs. The World Wide Web is a method of accessing information over the internet, not the internet itself.

Sir Tim Berners-Lee designed it in 1989 while working at CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) in Switzerland. The World Wide Web is a platform that allows people to access and exchange information via multiple platforms such as web browsers, mobile apps, and other software.

It is built on HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) and HTML (Hypertext Markup Language), allowing you to create documents with text, photos, videos, and other multimedia information. The World Wide Web is ever-changing, and new technologies are continually being created to improve user experience, security, and accessibility.


Web 1.0 refers to the initial iteration of the World Wide Web, which was largely focused on supplying users with static, read-only material. This online era began in the 1990s and continued through the early 2000s.

Web 1.0 websites tended to be plain, text-based pages with minimal images and interactive elements. They were developed and managed by individuals or groups and were largely used for exchanging information such as personal profiles, news items, and research papers. Navigation was frequently confined to simple text links, and there were no search engines to assist users in finding the information they required.

The absence of interaction and user-generated material defined Web 1.0. Users were primarily passive information consumers who were unable to engage with web sites, write comments, submit forms, upload files, and so on.

Web 1.0 was similarly constrained in terms of accessibility, since many users continued to utilize poor internet connections and outdated browsers incapable of handling more modern web technologies. As a result, web sites were frequently simplistic and restricted in their design.

In summary, Web 1.0 was the World Wide Web’s initial phase. It was a period when the internet was still in its infancy, and the web was mostly used to distribute information, with little interaction or user-generated content.


Web 2.0 refers to the World Wide Web’s second generation, which arose in the early 2000s. The growth of user-generated content, social media, and the capacity for people to engage and contribute online describe it.

Social networking sites, blogs, wikis, and video-sharing sites are examples of Web 2.0 technologies that allow users to produce and share their own content rather than merely viewing information provided by others. These technologies also enable better user cooperation and communication, improved accessibility, and the capacity to share and access information from multiple devices.

Web 2.0 websites are more dynamic and interactive than Web 1.0 sites. They have features like comments and ratings, as well as the ability to share and promote content across numerous platforms. They also make use of sophisticated technology like AJAX, which enables more dynamic and interactive interfaces, as well as rich media like movies and photos.

Web 2.0 also introduced the concept of “crowdsourcing,” which was the idea of harnessing the internet’s collective expertise to generate and improve content.

In essence, Web 2.0 is the World Wide Web’s second generation, which arose in the early 2000s and is distinguished by the growth of user-generated content, social media, and the capacity for users to communicate and cooperate online. Web 2.0 sites are more interactive, dynamic, and collaborative than Web 1.0 sites.


Web3, also known as Web 3.0, is the next generation of the World Wide Web, using decentralized technologies like blockchain and smart contracts to enable new online interactions and trade.

Web3 aims to establish a decentralized, open, and transparent network where people have more control over their data and online activities. Using dApps and DeFi platforms are examples.


Web4 has no common definition and may mean several things depending on the context. Some individuals call the next version of the World Wide Web “Web4”, which would be even more decentralized and focused on artificial intelligence, the semantic web, and the internet of things.

It would have more dynamic, autonomous, and networked systems that learn from data, communicate, and adapt to changing situations. This would enable data-driven, flexible systems.

Some of the advantages of a more decentralized web include the following:

  1. Greater security and privacy, as users have more control over their data and online interactions
  2. More open and transparent systems, as there is no central point of control or failure
  3. Greater resilience and robustness, as the network can continue to function even if parts of it fail
  4. More innovation and competition, as there are fewer barriers to entry for new players

Web4 builds on Web3’s decentralized technology to evolve the World Wide Web. Web4 simplifies the user experience by abstracting technological aspects. Users don’t have to worry about the blockchain, ZK-Rollups, or transaction gas limits. Gas battles and transaction costs will disappear from web3.

Web4 might build a circular crypto-economy that spans physical and digital barriers, eliminating the need for currency on and off ramps. This would destabilize the financial system.

The “symbiotic web,” which potentially involve direct brain-machine interactions, is another interpretation of Web4.

The progressive move from Web1 to Web2, and now from Web3 to Web4, offers new possibilities and welcomes more individuals to engage. Web4 is projected to be more user-friendly and generally embraced than Web3, which is still experimental.

Where are the opportunities?

Companies and individuals have several Web 4.0 options. The symbiotic web will improve consumer understanding and content customization.

Businesses will gain a competitive edge and improved customer service with AI-powered automation.

Connected gadgets that interact with users and collect data for personalization will be developed using hardware, software, and data.

Web 4.0 generates additional revenue through targeted advertising and subscription services.

VR and AR apps will enable new client engagement methods, such as an AR app that lets users interact with things in 3D.

I’ll explain below.

In summary, what do I see in Web4?

1) Industry 4.0 full automation

Industry 4.0 full automation uses advanced technologies such as IoT, AI, robotics, and digital twins to automate industrial processes fully. This results in increased efficiency, reduced costs, and improved product quality, leading to a fully autonomous and connected smart factory. The concept of Industry 4.0 is focused on creating a highly automated and digitized production environment. To be fully autonomous, web4 adds a layer of trust.

2) Decentralised sustainable metaverse + AR + VR

Combining a decentralized sustainable metaverse, AR, VR, and Web4 technologies creates a new dimension of the internet where users can experience a fully immersive and interactive virtual world. The decentralized aspect ensures that users have control over their data, and the virtual world operates sustainably.

AR and VR technologies enhance the experience by allowing users to interact with the virtual world more realistically and engagingly. Web4, also known as the Semantic Web, provides a decentralized and intelligent web infrastructure, enabling the metaverse to function seamlessly and intelligently. Together, these technologies create a new and exciting virtual experience accessible to many users.

3) AI making steps into the decentralized realm

AI is making steps into the decentralized realm with Web4 by enabling the creation of decentralized AI systems that operate on a peer-to-peer network. This combination of AI and Web4 technology allows for the creation of decentralized and autonomous systems that can perform complex tasks without a central authority.

4) Real decentralized apps and economies

This allows for creation of new business models and economic opportunities where transactions are secure, transparent, and tamper-proof. With Web4, dApps can be built and deployed on a decentralized network, providing users with greater control over their data and the ability to interact with the dApp in a secure and decentralized manner. This integration of Web4 in the decentralized app and economy development has the potential to create new and exciting opportunities for businesses and consumers alike.

5) Real power back to the users

This was briefly mentioned above. Web4 technology aims to give real power back to users by creating a decentralized and secure network where users have control over their data. With Web4, applications can be built and deployed on a decentralized network, allowing users to interact with the application in a secure and decentralized manner. This eliminates the need for a central authority, giving users greater control and autonomy over their data and interactions.

Additionally, the decentralized aspect of Web4 enhances the security and privacy of user data, reducing the risk of data breaches and providing users with greater control over their personal information. By giving power back to users, Web4 has the potential to revolutionize the way we interact with technology and the internet.

Web5 and Jack

In 2022, Jack Dorsey, the former CEO of Twitter, emerged as a leading figure in the development of Web5. He shared his vision for the next generation of the internet at the Consensus crypto and blockchain conference. Dorsey’s team at TBD, the Bitcoin-focused division of his fintech company Block (formerly known as Square), supports him in this endeavor.

According to Dorsey, Web5 is a solution to his issues with Web3, particularly his belief that it will never fully achieve decentralization.

“You don’t own ‘Web3.’ The [venture capitalists] and their [limited partners] do,” Dorsey said in a tweet, referring to the billions being poured into Web3. “It will never escape their incentives. It’s ultimately a centralized entity with a different label.”

“Know what you’re getting into,” he warned.

I do agree with Jack on this. The current practitioners often say that we are still in web2.5 is the same. It is not because we are not ready. We did not start this whole web3 era in the right foot and with the right decentralization model.

Ending note

Decentralized economies require actual decentralization. No one controls the network or its transactions. My paper states this repeatedly. Instead, network users vote or prove labor to make choices.

Decentralization prevents censorship, fraud, and other bad actions and gives people full control over their assets. Web4 may offer the opportunity to rethink, reform, and revalue decentralization. I will present about Web4 at the TMRW Conference in Dubai from 8-10 February 2023. I want to talk to all the IT specialists at the venue.


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